ankara turkey capital
History of Ankara
ankara tarihçe There are many different rumors about where Ankara's name comes from. But the city's name did not change a lot since the old ages. Ankara and its environs at the time were named as Ancyra, Angora, and Enguri. The exact date when the first settlement started in Ankara is not known but the archaeological research in the region revealed that there are settlement remains from Paleolithic Age. There are several findings belonging to the Early Bronze Age in Karaoğlan, Koçumbeli, Ahlatlıbel and Eti Yokuşu. Kızılcahamam region was used as a settlement region in Paleolithic Age. Hittites has left traces in many different parts the around Ankara. There is an important Hittite sacred settlement near the town of Haymana in Gavurkale district and also in Bitik near the Mürted Plain.

Ankara's history began in the Phrygian period. Ankara, a city in the Phrygian period, according to legend was founded by Phrygian King Midas. Remaining within the limits of today's Ankara, Phrygian capital of Gordion, the ancient city in Anatolia has been carrying the specialty of being one of the most important antique cities. Phrygians called this city "Ancyra" meaning “ships anchor”. The findings of tumuli around Ankara are evidences of Phrygians living here until B.C. 500.

After Phrygians, Ankara was under the domination of the Lydians. Ankara was a small commercial center while it was under the administration of the Persian ruler I. Dareios. Persian domination was ended in Ankara by Alexander the Great. Tektosags, a branch of Galatians, came from Europe to Anatolia in 278-277 BC, made Ankara their capital. First-time users of the area of the fortress in today’s Ankara are known to be Tektosags. When Galatians had to leave Ankara to Roman Emperor Augustus in 25 BC, Ankara region linked to the Roman Empire as the province of Galatia, Ankara became the capital of Galatia. During the 1st and 2nd century in Anatolia, Ankara has gained importance in the Roman road network. When Roman Empire lost its power, Ankara came under sovereignty of the Byzantine Empire and the Byzantine domination persisted until 1073.

Ankara became important again with Independence War;

Ankara remained as a Byzantine city from year 334 until 1073. City went under Turkish domination after the Battle of Malazgirt at year 1071. Alparslan defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071, after this victory the Seljuk Turks had conquered Anatolia quickly. In 1073 Ankara were seized by the Turks. The Byzantines attacked two times to get Ankara back but failed to get results. Ankara has stayed under 40 years of Ilkhanate domination after Invasion of the Seljuk lands by Ilkhanate. When Ahi Organization took control of the political government during the 1341 trouble in Anatolia, peace and trust has been achieved. After Ahi gave Ankara to the son of Orhan Gazi, Süleyman Pasha, Ankara became Ottoman Empire territory.

After 1300, Ankara had commercial functions as an Ahi center. Ankara continued to be a very important trade center during the Growth era of Ottoman Empire. The Ahi organization in Ankara was supplying goods made of leather and iron to the army. Also, widely produced angora in Anatolia was processed in Ankara. The city kept its importance as a manufacturing and trading center until 19. Century but then began to lose ground. Connection to Istanbul with a railroad in 1892 was not the answer to Ankara’s popularity loss.

With the battles at the beginning of 20th Century, the fall of Ottoman Empires and the fires in 1917, Ankara fell behind. However, during the War of Independence Ankara became the center of the national struggle and gained importance again. During the war, decisions which lead the way to the Republic of Turkey in 23 April 1920, has been taken by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara. After establishment of the Turkish Republic, Ankara has become the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 13 October 1923.
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